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Maintenance level was considered to be 1. Intake, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, urinary concentration of urea, and purine derivatives data were analyzed as repeated measurements taken over the d period,and d of gestation. Overall, DM intake decreased as DG increased.
This decrease observed in DM intake may be associated with the reduction in ruminal volume caused by the rapid increase in fetal size during late gestation.
We observed an interaction for DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility between FR and DG; at, and d of gestation, ML-fed cows had greater DM and organic matter apparent total-tract digestibility values than AL-fed cows. Rib fat thickness, mesentery, and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat were greater in AL-fed than in ML-fed cows at all DG, with the exception of rib fat thickness on d Ad libitum-fed cows excreted more N in their feces and urine compared with ML-fed cows.
Pregnant cows that were fed at maintenance had greater digestibility during some DG, excreted less N in feces and less N and urea in urine, and deposited less fat in the body. We therefore recommend ML 1.
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Maternal supply of methionine during late-pregnancy enhances rate of Holstein calf development in utero and postnatal growth to a greater extent than colostrum source